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Animal Research

Animal Research

International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals

The International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals was developed by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and reflects current best practices and standards of care in laboratory animal medicine and science. It provides a framework of responsibility and oversight to ensure the appropriate use of animals.  It also serves as a benchmark for advancing international collaboration in biomedical sciences.

Terrestrial Animal Health Code

The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code) sets forward standards for improving terrestrial animal health and welfare, and veterinary public health worldwide, including through standards for safe international trade in terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees) and their products. The health measures in the Terrestrial Code should be used by the Veterinary Authorities of importing and exporting countries to provide for early detection, reporting and control agents pathogenic to terrestrial animals and, in the case of zoonoses, for humans, and to prevent their transfer via international trade in terrestrial animals and terrestrial animal products, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade.

Animal Research Funded by NIH

The NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) oversees Public Health Service (PHS)-funded animal activities by the authority of the Health Research Extension Act of 1985 and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals that states: "Institutions in foreign countries receiving PHS support for activities involving animals shall comply with this Policy, or provide evidence to the PHS that acceptable standards for the humane care and use of the animals in PHS-conducted or supported activities will be met."

IACUC approval is not required of foreign grantees; however, OLAW encourages foreign grantees to use the standards in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The Guide is recognized worldwide as a resource for laboratory animal research facilities.

When the grantee is a domestic institution and performance sites are foreign (i.e., domestic grant with a foreign component), PHS Policy requirements are applicable. Accordingly, the prime domestic grantee remains responsible for animal activity conducted at the foreign site and must provide verification of IACUC approval (i.e., certification that the activity as conducted at the foreign performance site is acceptable to the prime grantee). The prime grantee IACUC may accept, as its own, the approval of a foreign organization's IACUC; however, the prime grantee IACUC remains responsible for the review. Additionally, the foreign site must obtain a Foreign Assurance.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls. All import, export, re-export and introduction of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system. Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species. The species covered by CITES are listed in three Appendices, according to the degree of protection they need. For additional information on the number and type of species covered by the Convention, click here.

AAALAC International

AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs. More than 950 companies, universities, hospitals, government agencies and other research institutions in 41 countries have earned AAALAC accreditation, demonstrating their commitment to responsible animal care and use. These institutions volunteer to participate in AAALAC's program, in addition to complying with the local, state and federal laws that regulate animal research. Furthermore, per UC C&G Manual 18-440, all facilities housing animals must be fully accredited by AAALAC. The AAALAC website also provides links to various international resources.

One Health Initiative

The One Health Initiative is the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines — working locally, nationally,and globally — to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. The importance of One Health is promoted by scientists in many countries and supported by prominent organizations including the World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health, The International Federation for Animal Health, Global Alliance for Rabies Control, New Zealand Centre for Conservation Medicine (NZCCM), Hubnet in Asia the One Health Global Network, the University of California One Health Center, Academic Hospital Utrecht and Utrecht Life Sciences and the Infection Ecology and Epidemiology Network, Uppsala, Sweden.

Last updated: 8 Dec 2016